Bradford /ˈbrædfərd/ (listen) is a city in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines, 8.6 miles (14 km) west of Leeds, and 16 miles (26 km) north-west of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, and acknowledged its charter as a city in 1897. Following local processing reform in 1974, city status was bestowed upon the City of Bradford metropolitan borough.
Bradford forms ration of the West Yorkshire Urban Area, which in 2001 had a population of 1.5 million and is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom. Bradford itself has a population of 529,870, which makes it the seventh-largest city in the United Kingdom and the third-largest city in Yorkshire and the Humber after Leeds and Sheffield.
Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to stress in the 19th century as an international middle of textile manufacture, particularly wool. It was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, and surrounded by the old-fashioned industrialised settlements, rapidly becoming the “wool capital of the world”. The area’s admission to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the addition of Bradford’s manufacturing base, which, as textile produce grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment; Bradford has a large amount of listed Victorian architecture including the grand Italianate City Hall.
The textile sector in Bradford fell into fall from the mid-20th century. Bradford has previously emerged as a tourist destination, becoming the first UNESCO City of Film afterward attractions such as the National Science and Media Museum, Bradford City Park, the Alhambra theatre and Cartwright Hall. Bradford has faced similar challenges to the stop of post-industrial Northern England, including deindustrialisation, social unrest and economic deprivation.