Melbourne (Kulin: Birrarunga, meaning “place against the Yarra River” /ˈmɛlbən/ (listen) MEL-bərn)[note 1] is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its reveal refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,993 km2 (3,858 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan Place with 31 municipalities, and is as well as the common broadcast for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay (Kulin: Naarm) and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 5 million (19% of the population of Australia), and its inhabitants are referred to as “Melburnians”.[note 2]
The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by pardon settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land (modern-day Tasmania). It was incorporated as a Crown agreement in 1837, and named Melbourne by Governor General Richard Bourke on 10 April 1837 in honour of the after that British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria stated it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the further colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom become old that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world’s largest and wealthiest metropolises. After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of executive of the additional nation until Canberra became the unshakable capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial middle in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index.
Melbourne is house to many of Australia’s best-known landmarks, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is with the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, and the Australian film and television industries. More recently, it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global middle for street art, live music and theatre. It hosts major annual international comings and goings such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, and then hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating terribly in entertainment, tourism and sport, as with ease as education, health care, research and development, Melbourne consistently ranked as the world’s most liveable city for much of the 2010s.
The main landing field serving the city is Melbourne Airport (also referred to as Tullamarine Airport), which is the second busiest in Australia, and Australia’s busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station. It along with has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world.