Newcastle upon Tyne (/ˌnjuːkɑːsəl -/, locally /njuːˌkæsəl -/ (listen)), commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, and forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a devotee of the UK Core Cities Group and is a fanatic of the Eurocities network of European cities.
Newcastle was portion of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming ration of Tyne and Wear in 1974. The regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding Place is Geordie. Newcastle as well as houses Newcastle University, a devotee of the Russell Group, as capably as Northumbria University. Newcastle is devotee of the North of Tyne Combined Authority.
The city developed roughly the Roman pact Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror’s eldest son. The city grew as an important middle for the wool trade in the 14th century, and innovative became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along behind the shipyards belittle down the River Tyne, was amongst the world’s largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.
Newcastle’s economy includes corporate headquarters, learning, digital technology, retail, tourism and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom’s GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts beyond 57,000 runners each year.