Sunderland (/ˈsʌndərlənd/ (listen)) is a city at the centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in Tyne and Wear, England, 12 miles northeast of Durham and 10 miles southeast of Newcastle upon Tyne, at the mouth of the River Wear.
Historically in County Durham, there were three native settlements by the mouth of the River Wear upon the site of modern-day Sunderland. On the north side of the river, Monkwearmouth was arranged in 674 next King Ecgfrith of Northumbria granted house to Benedict Biscop to found Monkwearmouth Monastery. In 685, Ecgfrith further granted Biscop the land next to the monastery upon the south side of the river. As the river separated this estate from the monastic community, it was henceforth referred to as the “sunder-land”, and would ensue as a fishing concurrence before being settled a charter in 1179. West of the medieval village of Sunderland on the south bank, Bishopwearmouth was founded in 930.
Sunderland grew as a port, trading coal and salt. Ships began to be built upon the river in the 14th century. By the 19th century, the port of Sunderland had absorbed Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth, owing to the growing economic importance of the shipbuilding docks. Following the end of the city’s traditional industries in the late 20th century, the Place grew into a commercial middle for the automotive industry, science and technology and the foster sector.
Bede, sometimes called the dad of English history, began his monastic career at Monkwearmouth monastery in Sunderland, before upsetting to the newly founded Jarrow monastery in 685 (these monasteries together formed the dual Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey). It suitably seems likely that he was born in or near Sunderland. Indeed, Bede superior wrote that he was “ácenned upon sundorlande þæs ylcan mynstres” (born in a separate home of this same monastery); here, “sundorlande” translates literally as “separate land” but could deal with to the village of Sunderland. Alternatively, it is attainable that Sunderland was far ahead named in honour of Bede’s links to the area, by people up to date with this statement of his.
A person from Sunderland is sometimes known as a Mackem. However, as this term originated as recently as the to the fore 1980s, its use and wave by Sunderland residents, particularly accompanied by the older generations, is not universal. At one time, Sunderland-built ships were called “Jamies”, in contrast similar to those from Tyneside, which were known as “Geordies”, although in the war of “Jamie” it is not known whether this was ever lengthy to people.