Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Scarborough borough of North Yorkshire, England. Situated upon the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has a maritime, mineral and tourist heritage. Its East Cliff is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey, where Cædmon, the old-fashioned recognised English poet, lived. The fishing harbor emerged during the Middle Ages, supporting important herring and whaling fleets, and was where Captain Cook hypothetical seamanship. Tourism started in Whitby during the Georgian period and developed with the coming on of the railway in 1839. Its attraction as a tourist destination is enhanced by the proximity of the high ground of the North York Moors national park and the descent coastline and by association with the horror novel Dracula. Jet and alum were mined locally, and Whitby Jet, which was mined by the Romans and Victorians, became fashionable during the 19th century.
The earliest photograph album of a surviving settlement is in 656, when as Streanæshealh it was the place where Oswy, the Christian king of Northumbria, founded the first abbey, under the abbess Hilda. The Synod of Whitby was held there in 664. In 867, the monastery was destroyed by Viking raiders. Another monastery was founded in 1078. It was in this era that the town gained its current name, Whitby (from “white settlement” in Old Norse). In the with centuries Whitby functioned as a fishing agreement until, in the 18th century, it developed as a harbor and centre for shipbuilding and whaling, the trade in locally mined alum, and the fabricate of Whitby plane jewellery.
The abbey destroy at the top of the East Cliff is the town’s oldest and most prominent landmark. Other significant features improve the interchange bridge, which crosses the River Esk and the harbour, which is sheltered by the grade II listed East and West piers. The town’s maritime heritage is commemorated by statues of Captain Cook and William Scoresby, as without difficulty as the whalebone arch that sits at the summit of the West Cliff. The town with has a strong literary tradition and has featured in researcher works, television and cinema, most famously in Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula.
While Whitby’s cultural and historical line contribute to the local economy, the town does be anxious from the economic constraints of its distant location, ongoing changes in the fishing industry, relatively underdeveloped transport infrastructure, and limitations upon available estate and property. As a result, tourism and some forms of fishing remain the mainstay of its economy. It is the closest harbor to a proposed wind farm enhance in the North Sea, 47 miles (76 km) from York and 22 miles (35 km) from Middlesbrough. There are transport associates to the get out of of North Yorkshire and North East England, primarily through national rail associates to Middlesbrough and road contacts to Teesside, via both the A171 and A174, and Scarborough by the former. As at 2011, the town had a population of 13,213.